Sperm and egg donation services are provided by fertility clinics in the UK, which match recipients and donors and provide fertility treatment services. Many clinics recruit their own egg or sperm donors although some buy in donated eggs or sperm from other clinics and sperm banks (which might be in the UK or abroad).
There are also various donor-matching websites in the UK which introduce donors and recipients, who then make their own conception arrangements - either at home (in sperm donation cases), or via a clinic in the UK or abroad.
The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority regulates UK donor conception treatment. Fertility clinics (and anyone else who provides services in the UK which involve handling the eggs or sperm) must have an HFEA licence and must comply with the HFEA's Code of Practice and the law as follows.
The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority Register of Information has, since 1 August 1991, recorded information about treatment at licenced fertility clinics in the UK. The law sets out how that information can be accessed.
Anyone over the age of 16 can ask the HFEA whether they were conceived with donated eggs or sperm at a clinic in the UK after 1991. They can also ask if the Register shows that they are genetically related to someone they intend to marry, register a civil partnership with or enter into an intimate physical relationship with (the application must be made jointly by both partners).
Information about donors
Donor-conceived people whose details are on the Register can also ask for any non-identifying information about their donor. This usually includes the donor's physical appearance, height, weight, hair colour, eye colour and occupation. It may also include any statement the donor has written describing him or herself (a pen sketch) or a note the donor has written for any children conceived (a goodwill message). Donor-conceived people over the age of 16 have a right to request this information, but in practice the HFEA will also provide it to their parents before they are 16, if requested.
Some donor-conceived people can also ask for identifying information about their donor, which means his or her name, date of birth, town of birth and last known address. This information is only available to the donor-conceived person once he or she is over 18. UK law on donor anonymity changed from 1 April 2005, so whether identifying information is available depends on the circumstances:
Information about donor-conceived siblings
Donor-conceived people may have donor-conceived genetic half siblings in other families if their donor donated to more than one family. Since 1 August 1991, UK law has allowed up to ten families to use the same donor.
Donor-conceived people can (from the age of 16 or, in practice, before with their parents' support) ask how many donor-conceived siblings are also recorded on the Register, whether they are boys or girls and the year in which they were born. From the age of 18 a donor-conceived person who wishes to be put in touch with donor-conceived siblings can ask to join the HFEA's Donor Sibling Register. If any of their donor-conceived siblings also joins the register, the HFEA will put them in touch with each other.
Information available to donors
Egg and sperm donors can apply to find out limited information about the results of their donation, either from the HFEA directly or from the clinic where they donated their eggs or sperm. They can ask the HFEA whether their donation resulted in a birth and, if so, the sex and year of birth of any children born. They cannot find out the identity of any children born, or their parents.
Find out more from the HFEA about how to apply for information about donor conception.
Donor-conceived people conceived before 1991
The HFEA Register of Information does not hold information about donor conception treatments which took place before 1 August 1991, which was when the HFEA came into existence. However, the Donor Conceived Register is a separate voluntary UK register which helps donor-conceived people, donors and genetic siblings make connections with each other using DNA matching and historic information from clinic records.
If conception takes place at a licensed clinic in the UK, the clinic has to follow all the following rules:
Screening of donors - egg and sperm donors must be screened to minimise the risk of diseases and genetic disorders being transmitted to the birth mother or to the child. Sperm donors have to undergo blood tests and semen analysis, and their sperm must be quarantined (held in storage) for a period of between six weeks and six months before it can be used in treatment. Donated eggs do not need to be quarantined, but the egg donor must be screened through blood tests and medical history.
Payments to donors - donors can only be paid for their expenses within HFEA guidelines. Currently, the HFEA allows a fixed payment of £750 per cycle for egg donors and £35 per clinic visit for sperm donors. More can be paid for verifiable out of pocket expenses (not including international travel). Alternatively, donors can receive subsidised fertility treatment, including IVF or treatment to store eggs for future use (fertility clinics commonly refer to such arrangements as 'egg sharing' or more rarely 'sperm sharing' programmes).
Counselling - donors and parents must be offered counselling, including discussion about the long term implications of donor conception and the fact that the child is likely to benefit from knowing about his or her genetic origins.
Consent - donors have control over their eggs/sperm up to the point they are transferred into someone else's body, and clinics must comply with the terms of any consent they give. Find out more about consent in UK fertility treatment.
Family numbers - donors can donate to no more than ten different families via licensed clinics in the UK (as well as conceiving their own children).
Storage - eggs and sperm can normally be stored for a maximum of ten years, although patients with particular medical conditions may have the option to extend storage, for example if they have used your eggs or sperm to create embryos. Find out more about storage of eggs, sperm and embryos.
Importing donor eggs or sperm - donated eggs and sperm can only be imported into the UK from abroad if they comply with these rules (although the HFEA can make exceptions to this rule in particular cases).